To be added:
Cosmic Life Line
Sci Study of UFOs
Philosophy of Science
Theory of Universal Gravitation
and A Unified Interaction
December 1993 (PDF 189KB)
Newton combined force and mass in universal gravitation.
Einstein bypassed the issue of force altogether: In general relativity,
gravity is geometry. However, in both Newton's and Einstein's theories of
gravitation, mass is the cause of gravity. When enormous gravitation is
detected in the universe, scientists search for the massive bodies that cause
the large gravitation. When those massive bodies are not discovered,
mysteriously hidden masses, such as the black holes and dark unseen matter, are
proposed. Matter is out there, but it is hidden.
Newton and Einstein's theories of gravitation do not explain some observed
facts, and both theories contradict other facts.
In this Report, I show that the heat screened, or hidden,
inside insulating surface layers, such as the Earth’s crust, is the cause of
gravity. The mysterious free fall is explained by the same effect. The same
mechanism works in the stars, planets, moons, and atoms. My theory gives
accurate answers to anomalies, perturbations, observations and contradictions
that remain unanswered, or unexplainable. Detailed Crucial Tests and Numerical
Examples are included, along with the governing equations. I urge the reader to
use a standard high school or college physics textbook side-by-side with this
Report. That way, you will see how one Maxwell-like equation applies to all
fields in physics.
I find that a sphere, such as the Earth, with insulating crust layer(s) acts
like an insulated-electric-conductor, which obeys Gauss's law,
where the internally screened-temperature, rather than the electric charge, is
the interaction agent.
Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations held a great promise. If only the
mechanical equations, i.e., Newton’s, could be written in Maxwell-like
equations. Einstein spent considerable effort and time trying to express
gravitational equations in Maxwell-like form, but he was not able to do the
task. In this Report, you will see how to express the gravitational equations in
The analogy between universal gravitation and general relativity can be seen
as follows. Rather than begin with Newton’s equation of force, which includes
the product of the masses, general relativity begins with an equation of
potentials, where the central mass M
is replaced by the density. The equation of potentials, or Poisson’s equation,
is directly related to Newton’s law. It was therefore inevitable that the
general relativity tensor attributes gravitation to the mass, via the density of
Formulas of Universal Gravitation and Unified Interaction (PDF
December 1993 (PDF 481 KB)
had tried the above formulations with the moons of Jupiter and the other
planets, the planets with the Sun, the Space Shuttle and satellites in earth
orbits, the Lunar Orbiters and the Apollo spacecraft around the Moon. The
procedure is a powerful tool to chart the gravitation footprint, especially, for
bodies that do not have their own satellites.
estimate the gravitating-temperature T
of any body, Kepler’s constant k
must be derived from the period and the distance of some orbiting body in the
desired central-body-system; but my constant a
will be the same for all central-body-systems.
Kepler’s constant varies from one system to another, but my constant remains
constant for all systems, whether galaxies, stars, planets, molecules or atoms.
you try my formulations with problems in classical, electromagnetic and quantum
physics, you will discover amazing results. The relationship, between Kepler’s
and my constant a,
described above is such a result. Also, Kepler's constant and my constant give
the speed of light!
of the General Theory of Relativity
to a Physical Review Letters, July 1992
show that the thought experiments used to develop general relativity did not
include, nor consider, the basic “bouncing” motion. We also show that in
the Einstein elevator, perfectly elastic balls fall together the first time,
but that, subsequently, the motion of the balls is never synchronous…
particular, we show that in accelerated frames, the action is a force-pulse,
whereas in a gravitational field, the action is a series of uninterrupted
rope is then fixed to the ceiling with a body attached to the free end. The
rope hangs “vertically” and stretches. The inside observer considers this
to be a gravitational effect.
noted that the “principle of equivalence” is basal to general relativity;
the “principle cannot be eliminated without destroying the theory as a
whole.”3 Einstein himself (and Infeld) emphasized that
without the principle, “our… argument would fail completely.”4
experiment whatsoever can distinguish a gravitational field from an
accelerated reference frame.”5 We describe such an
reasoning is not limited to thought experiments. The mass of a Space Shuttle
Orbiter is approximately 90,000 kg. If the thrusters provide 1-g acceleration
in orbit, then a floating 1-kg elastic ball will appear to fall freely… and
the astronauts will immediately know that they are in an accelerating frame,
and not in a gravitational field.
Comments from Dr. Gary D. Gordon,
Scientist, COMSAT (3/15/1994)
"The subject of this paper is
fascinating. I find different individuals are satisfied by different answers.
The question "Why do objects fall?" can be answered in so many
different ways. A child may be told "you didn't hold on to it."
I understand you are looking for
objections that people might raise in reviewing your theory. I hope the above is
helpful. I am also attaching a calculation of the analemma.
may be many ways of calculating the analemma. The procedure uses well known
equations, but is not simple."
AbuTaha's Response to Gary Gordon
"... I have repeated the
Cavendish tests with care to generate a quantitative database. A
first-order effect can be produced by varying the temperature of the masses in
the Cavendish experiment...
As you wrote, there are many ways to calculate the analemma, and the procedure
is not simple. The enclosed figure shows four analemmas, (1) my
calculated analemma, (2) your calculated analemma, (3) Sundial measured
analemma, and (4) An analemma I derived from the velocity vector in the
analemma and the Sundial analemma are in agreement. On the other hand, my
calculated analemma and the Ephemeris' velocity analemma are in agreement - -
- The difference between the two sets requires explanation - - - Is the use of
THE MOON: Many Arab astronomers tried to make precise predictions of the Moon's motion,
if only because the annual Islamic events are based on lunar calendar. Many
years ago, I made similar attempts, and I also failed. The Moon's motion is
simply incomprehensible - - - I was able to develop meaningful correlations
from temperature-gravitation; e.g., perigee
occurs after minimum declination (see enclosed figure)
mentioned the formidable mass-based equation of 250 pages that describes the
Moon's orbit. I offer an equation of one line; i.e., the radius vector to the
Moon as function of temperatures and distance; to predict the motion of the
Here is an excellent correlation derived from my concept. If
a moon (or ring) is too close to the parent planet so that it does not view
the poles, then the eccentricity of the moon's orbit is very small or zero.
Whereas if a moon is far enough from the parent planet so as to view the
poles, then the moon's orbit is rather eccentric. This is true of
most the moons we know today (1994)
In my extensive gravitation work, I have simply asked questions that have
not been asked before. For example, astronomy textbooks give, in text and
figures, observational facts. Aphelion of Mars' orbit occurs long before
the planet's summer solstice, and perihelion occurs long before the winter solstice. The aphelion and perihelion of
slightly after the solstices. The difference is distinct (enclosed
In my view, mass gravitation runs into its most difficult test with
periodic and non-periodic changes in the intensity and direction of gravity in
a given location. To explain some of these requires that the invisible mascons
(mass concentrations or black holes) move underground like cars on California
highways. The temperature changes, on the other hand, are perceptible,
measurable, and can explain the time variation of gravity."
AbuTaha's Response to Gary Gordon
"I like to add to my response
of yesterday that the accuracies in the Cavendish experiment are worse than you
Comments from Dr. Gary D. Gordon,
Scientist, COMSAT (4/06/1994)
"I was interested in your
data on the accuracy of the Cavendish experiment. The results you quote show
that the experiment is less accurate than what I had guessed.
think you are close to understanding the differences between the various
calculations of the analemma. I hope the enclosed calculations (pp. 2-5) will
AbuTaha's Response to Gary Gordon
"Your observations would be
useful to some of our friends - authors of satellite textbooks - who hardly
treat the subject in their books. My understanding of the analemma has not
changed much. The analemma is said to have been discovered by the Arabs. It is
a vital tool to determine the exact time of daily prayers in Islam; for cities
at different longitude and latitude. I had used the analemma extensively some
theirty years ago for this and other purposes; and I had gained a clear
understanding of it then.
said in the earlier comments (p. 3, Para. 1) that "the analemma is
not explained, nor mentioned," in your Handbook of Communications
Satellite. You may be rushing to incorporate the Earth's analemma into the
satellites' analemmas, drifts, and orbit perturbations.
analemma is incidental to my concept temperature-gravitation - - - and further
elaboration on the analemma would seem unproductive..."
AbuTaha's Response to Dr. Victor
Slabinski, Senior Scientist, COMSAT (3/09/1994)
"Many years ago, I examined Kepler's assertions about a
double acceleration in each orbit of the planets and the Moon. Kepler called
it "the colure (lure or attraction) of the solstices."
The double acceleration was evident (also to Tycho Brahe) after the effects of
obliquity, eccentricity, etc. were eliminated. To account for the
irregularity, Kepler reported that it required two eccentricities for each
orbit to explain the observed irregularity. Alternatively, two accelerations
in each orbit explained the observation.
(Using his database) Kepler reported how changing the
eccentricity would explain the "irregularity," but that that would
double the "irrergularity" on the other side. My Figures 3 and 4
(will be added when found) show exactly what was meant by the need for two
eccentricities, or two accelerations.
Conclusion: The Analemma analysis demonstrates that there is
an acceleration component that occurs around the summer solstice (or in the
apogee region) that is not accounted for by Keplerian, Newtonian, or other
methods. My temperature-gravitation concept and formulations give qualitative
and quantitative answers.
"...you can see that the south cap sits squarely on the
south pole while the north cap is centered around 75o. The effect
of the location of the icecaps can also be seen in the case of the analemma;
(see previous Section), where the acceleration in the summer solstice begins
soon after April (early viewing of the North icecap) while the winter solstice
acceleration is delayed until after October, due to the late viewing of that
In summary, Kepler was right, the primary effect is
terrestrial (or planetary), the effect lies in the poles, and more
importantly, the effect is governed by the "posture" or
attitude of the poles."
Reply to Wilbur L. Pritchard,
Director of Comsat Labs, (2/01/1994)
"It was thoughtful of you to send pages of the
"Explanatory Supplement" to the Astronomical Ephemeris. There is a
fundamental and substantial discrepancy that is not obvious to the casual
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